헌법재판소 전원재판부는 21일 신행정수도 건설특별법에 대한 헌법소원 사건에서 재판관 8대 1의 의견으로 위헌 결정을 내렸다.
헌재는 수도이전 문제가 헌법 개정 사항이거나 국민투표를 통해 결정할 사항이나 이런 절차를 거치지 않았다며 이 같이 결정했다.
이날 재판관중 노무현 대통령이 지명한 전효숙 재판관만이 헌법소원이 적법한 요건을 구비하지 못했다는 의견을 냈다.
이에따라 지난 7월 12일 접수된 이 사건은 심리 100여일만에 정부의 행정수도 이전을 둘러싼 위헌 논란에 종지부를 찍었지만 이번 위헌 결정으로 행정수도 추진은 전면 중단되게 됐다.
정부가 수도 이전을 재추진하려면 헌법을 개정해야 하고 이를 위해 국회에서 재적 의원 3분의 2의 찬성을 얻는 의결과 이후 국민투표를 거쳐야 한다.
재판부는 결정문에서 7명의 다수 의견을 통해 “서울이 수도라는 점은 헌법상 명문의 조항이 있는 것은 아니지만 조선 왕조 이래 600여년간 관습에 의해 형성된 관행이므로 관습 헌법으로 성립된 불문헌법에 해당된다”고 밝혔다.
재판부는 “‘수도는 서울’이라는 관습헌법을 폐지하기 위해서는 헌법이 정한 절차에 따른 헌법개정이 이뤄져야 한다”며 “정부는 헌법 개정절차를 거치지 않았으므로 헌법상 국민투표권을 침해한 위헌”이라고 말했다.
개헌을 하려면 국회의원 재적 과반수나 대통령 발의로 제안이 있은뒤 국회 재적의원 3분의 2 이상 찬성을 통해 국회를 통과한 뒤 30일 이내 국민투표에 부쳐 과반수 투표에 과반수 찬성을 얻어야 한다.
김영일 재판관은 위헌 의견을 개진하면서도 “수도이전은 헌법 72조가 정한 국방.통일 기타 국가 안위에 관한 중요정책에 해당된다”며 “이 경우 국민투표를 실시해야 함에도 이를 어긴 것은 72조의 국민투표권을 침해한 것”이라고 밝혔다.
반면 전효숙 재판관은 “서울을 수도로 한 관습헌법의 변경이 반드시 헌법개정을 요하는 문제라고 할 수 없다”며 “행정수도 이전정책 역시 국민투표를 요하는 사안이라고 볼 수 없어 헌법소원은 이유없다”는 각하의견을 냈다.
청구인측 이석연 변호사는 선고직후 “개혁이란 이름으로 헌법 정신을 무시한 채 국가를 분열시키고 갈등으로 몰고가는 집권세력에게 헌법의 가치가 살아있음을 보여준 결정”이라고 평가하면서 “수도이전을 추진하려면 개헌을 해야 한다는 뜻으로 정부는 원점에서부터 이 문제를 다시 검토해야 할 것”이라고 말했다.
정부측 오금석 변호사는 “헌재 결정을 존중해야 하겠지만 법 이론적으로는 소수의견이 타당하다고 본다”며 “다수의견은 정책판단에 따른 것으로 보이며 상당히 유감스럽게 생각한다”고 말했다.
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